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FORT AND BATTLES WAR OF 1812

    BUFFALO, NEW YORK

    Three-hundred American soldiers froze to death in Buffalo roughly two centuries ago, victims of poor planning, and worse equipment. Volunteers in the fight against the British during the War of 1812, they arrived at an area called Flint Hill in the summer of 1812. Ordered to make camp for the winter, the troops were without warm uniforms. They had no boots, little food, and open-ended tents. The calendar year ended, and a sickness began to spread, killing roughly half the garrison of men. The soil was rocky, and the ground frozen, so shallow graves had to do. Come spring, the bodies were dug up and reburied in a meadow. In 1896 came the placement of a boulder marking the spot in which they were buried.:

     

    For Photo of Monument with text placed Buffalo, NY in honor of soldiers who died there during the Winter of 1812 Click Here

     

    Battle of Bladenburg

    August 24, 1814

Maryland 8 miles from Washington, DC

Failure to check British resulted in the burning of Wasington, DC



Artists Rendering of the Battle of Bladensburg (Copyright Gerry Embleton; Courtesy NPS/Star Spangled Banner National Historic Trail)

In July, 1814, after the British fleet had been in control of the Chesapeake Bay for more then a year, a separate U.S. military command was created under Brigadier General William Winder, for the defense of Washington, Maryland, and eastern Virginia. General John Armstrong, the Secretary of War, thought this command was more than enough to protect the Capitol and the region.

On August 20, 1814, over 4,500 seasoned British troops landed at the little town of Benedict on the Patuxent River and marched fifty miles overland bent on destroying the Capitol and other federal buildings.

President James Madison sent Secretary of State James Monroe out to reconnoiter and on August 23rd, Madison received a frightening dispatch from Monroe…”The enemy are in full march to Washington, Have the materials prepared to destroy the bridges, PS – You had better remove the records.” Incorrect deductions were drawn on the fact that the British troops maneuvered to give the Americans the impression that Baltimore was their destination. General Armstrong could not be convinced that Washington would be the target of the invasion and not Baltimore, an important center of commerce. There was much confusion trying to outguess the British. As a precaution, two bridges near the Navy Yard and across the Eastern Branch/Anacostia River were destroyed to protect the Capitol, thus leaving a route through Bladensburg as the logical approach. General Winder sent troops to Marlborough to intercept the British, but they hurried back when they learned the enemy was already on the move toward Bladensburg.

In Bladensburg, American troops began to be assembled by Winder, Armstrong, as well as the Secretary of State. General Smith, another American commander, used his aide – Francis Scott Key – to assemble his troops. Calvary units were positioned to the right of the turnpike, while the first and second American lines were positioned nearly a 1/2 mile apart from each other. The organization of the troops, the general concern about the size of the British army, and the lack of preparation by the troops would eventually lead to the undoing of the hastily assembled group.



Map of Troop Positions in Battle of Bladensburg

As the British entered the town, they were greeted by the American troops firing the first volleys across the Eastern Branch. The British initially fell back and moved behind the buildings in Bladensburg. Soon though, the British set off their new weapon – the Congreve rocket. These rockets would eventually become the famous “rockets red glare.” British troops began to return fire as the rockets burst above the American’s heads. American leaders on the first line, unclear on their support from the second line, ordered retreat. American soldiers began to fall back and leave the field via the Georgetown Pike (now Bunker Hill Road). The second line, positioned approximately at the modern 40th Avenue, and the members of the Cabinet left the field of battle at or before this point. Cannons were left behind, soldiers moved in haphazard movements responding to the need to fight and the orders for retreat. General chaos reigned across the field of battle.

At Dueling Creek, Kramer’s Militia – troops from Montgomery and Prince George’s County – fought hard against the British but eventually retreated up the hill past Commodore Barney’s men. The strongest repulse against the British was made by Commodore Joshua Barney and his seasoned Floatillamen. Barney’s men were valiant fighters, however, the authorities in Washington “forgot” Barney for several days. Without orders, he and his men were tardy arrivals. Combined with Captain Miller’s Marines, Barney fired down the hill toward the British, causing significant British casualties. British troops were ordered into a single file line, encircling Barney’s placement and overtaking him. British losses were much larger than the Americans.

By four o’clock the battle was over and the Americans were defeated due, in many respects to delay, indifference and indecision on the part of the leaders – not the lack of heroism on the part of the soldiers.

The British then moved on toward the Capital. By the end of the same day, the Capitol building, the President’s Mansion and many other public buildings were in flames. The following day more buildings were burned. At about noon a tremendous storm of hurricane force descended upon the city halting further destruction. With their mission accomplished, the British feared the Americans would reassemble their forces and attack while they were in the vulnerable position of being a long distance from their fleet. The men were miserable in the sweltering temperatures. They were tired, ill and wounded. At dusk the troops quietly withdrew from the city. The troops were so exhausted that many died of fatigue on the four day march back to the ships, several deserted, but the body of men marched on.

Several of the British stragglers and deserters were arrested by citizens in Upper Marlboro. When the British commanders learned of the incident, they sent a small force back to Upper Marlboro and arrested William Beanes, a well respected doctor and town elder. Following his arrest, Georgetown lawyer Francis Scott Key and U.S. Agent for Prisoner Exchange John S. Skinner went to secure Bean’s release from the British. They brought with them letters from troops who testified as to the compassion that was received while tended to in Bladensburg. Brought on board one of the British vessels, Francis Scott Key would see the battle in Baltimore raging on and the flag standing at the end of the battle, leading to the writing of the Star Spangled Banner.

Battle of Bladensburg Monument

 

As the bicentennial of the War of 1812 approaches, there is a need for appropriate commemoration of the Battle of Bladensburg. This proposed monument will serve as a tribute to the soldiers, sailors and marines who fought and died defending their Nation’s Capital on August 24, 1814. The memorial presents Commodore Joshua Barney, not in a moment of triumph, but shortly after he is wounded. He is being assisted by Charles Ball, a former slave and member of the flotilla who fought alongside Barney at Bladensburg. The other figure represents a member of the Marines. All three figures are looking up, “undaunted” with their weapons at the ready.

The figures will be sculpted in relief and cast in bronze. The bronze panel will be housed in a limestone base that reads “Undaunted in Battle.” The back surface of the base will house the official Battle of Bladensburg Interpretive Marker. Constructed of granite, the marker will provide a focus for tourism in the area, and will contain information about the battle and battlefield, including a narrative summary of the battle with quotations, maps and graphics.

The proposed location of the memorial is the center of the Bladensburg Balloon Park, a landscaped area owned by MNCPPC, between the Peace Cross and an existing parking lot next to the George Washington House. It will be easily visible to vehicles and pedestrian traffic

The sculptor selected for the proposed memorial is Joanna Blake. Mrs. Blake, a resident of Cottage City, is a figurative sculptor with a studio in Brentwood, MD. Since 2001 she has worked for Kaskey Studio,Inc., where she has contributed her design and sculpting skills to the creation of a number of large scale public monuments, most notably, the National World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C.

The Aman Memorial Trust is a non-profit, 501 (c)(3) tax exempt organization that supports historic preservation in and about the Town of Bladensburg. The Trust has taken the lead in organizing a memorial committee that will receive and disburse funds for the memorial. Support for the project has been strong, with commitments from The Friends of the Battle of Bladensburg and several other organizations including local and state government. Our goal is for the sculpture and surrounding landscape to create a space for reflection; a destination for tourists interested in history and a reminder to Maryland residents of the historical events of August 24,1814.

BATTLE OF PLATTSBURG

 

BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE

The U.S. Postal Service continues its commemoration of the bicentennial of the War of 1812 with the issuance of a Battle of Lake Erie stamp.

The battle produced an American naval hero, Oliver Hazard Perry, and helped the United States take back territory lost to British forces in the opening months of the war. It also introduced two familiar sayings, “Don’t give up the ship” and “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”

The War of 1812: Battle of Lake Erie stamp is being issued as a Forever stamp, meaning it is always equal in value to the current first-class mail one-ounce rate.

For the stamp art, the Postal Service selected William Henry Powell’s famous painting, “Battle of Lake Erie.” The oil-on-canvas painting, completed in 1873, was commissioned by the U.S. Congress and placed at the head of the east stairway in the Senate wing of the Capitol. It depicts Oliver Hazard Perry in the small boat he used to transfer from his ruined flagship, the Lawrence, to the Niagara. A 19th-century engraving of Perry by William G. Jackman (after John Wesley Jarvis) is shown on the reverse of the stamp pane.

For More Information on the Batle of Lake Erie and its importance CLICK HERE

PLATTSBURG

Also SEE ARCHEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION THIS BATTLEFIELD SITE

After the 1812 campaign failed to gain a foothold in British territory along Lake Champlain, Gen. Henry Dearborn’s 1st Brigade, under the command of Col. Zebulon Pike (of Pike’s Peak fame), went into winter quarters at Plattsburgh, New York. They occupied Plattsburgh for three short months. During that time, over 200 men perished of frostbite and sickness, making camp life more deadly than actual conflict.

In the early spring of 1813, plans were hatched for an early offensive on Lake Ontario, and the 1st Brigade marched out. In three feet of snow, they traveled 175 miles to Sackets Harbor, NY where they participated in the attack on York and 1813 Niagara campaign. Pike was killed at York in April, 1813.

And SEE Pike's Cantonment near the Plattsurg Battle site.

Pike's Cantonment Site is a historic archeological site located near PlattsburghClinton County, New York. It was located in 2011 during an archaeological dig that uncovered a bayonet scabbard, ammunition, military jacket buttons, building sites, and burned timber. Pike's Cantonment was the location of a military encampment during the War of 1812 under the command of Zebulon Pike. It was established in the winter of 1812-1813 for 2,000 American soldiers and burned to the ground by British troops during the summer of 1813. On September 11, 1814, during the Battle of Plattsburgh, the cantonment was utilized by British troops as a spot to cross the Saranac River as they attempted to circle American soldiers defending Plattsburgh.

FORT STEPHENSON

The Battle of Fort Stephenson in August 1813 was an American victory during the War of 1812. American forces successfully defended the fort in August 1813; it guarded an important supply depot. It was located on the west bank of the Sandusky River more than 10 miles upstream from Sandusky Bay in what is now Ohio. The town of Fremont, Ohio developed around the site

REMEMBER THE RAISIN CLICK HERE Michigan

January 18th to January 23rd, 1813, the north bank of the River Raisin became a battleground where the forces of the United States and Great Britain fought each other for the control of all of Michigan and the Lower Great Lakes.  At stake was the destiny not only of the 2 countries (United State and Great Britain), but also the future of Frenchtown, (known today as Monroe Michigan) and of Canada, and of Tecumseh's alliance of Native-American tribes. 

The British and Indian victory at the River Raisin destroyed an entire American army and upset their campaign to recapture Detroit, which had fallen to the enemy early in the war.  It raised Native-American hopes that their alliance with the British would result in the preservation of their lands, while it brought grief to hundreds of families in Kentucky who had lost their sons during the bloody battle and its aftermath.

While not a decisive turning point of the war, the Battle of the River Raisin had a significant effect on the campaign for the Great Lakes.  It would take a full 9 months for U.S. forces to regain their momentum.  In the meantime, Frenchtown was laid waste, and the Ohio frontier was exposed to invasion and raids by the British and Indians.

Out of the battle of the River Raisin, came one of the great American rallying cries of the War of 1812,
“Remember the Raisin!”


 

The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle in the War of 1812. Resulting in a British victory, it took place on 13 October 1812 near QueenstonUpper Canada (now Ontario).

The battle was fought between United States regulars with New York militia forces, led by Major General Stephen Van Rensselaer, and British regulars, York and Lincoln militia and Mohawk warriors, led by Major General Isaac Brock and then Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe, who took command after Brock was killed.

The battle was fought as the result of an American attempt to establish a foothold on the Canadian side of the Niagara River before campaigning ended with the onset of winter. The decisive battle was the culmination of a poorly-managed American offensive and may be most historically significant for the loss of the British commander.

Despite their numerical advantage and the wide dispersal of British forces defending against their invasion attempt, the Americans, who were stationed in Lewiston, New York, were unable to get the bulk of their invasion force across the Niagara River because of the work of British artillery and the reluctance on the part of the undertrained and inexperienced American militia. As a result, British reinforcements arrived, defeated the unsupported American forces, and forced them to surrender.

ILLINOIS FORT DEARBORN

/> A new YouTube video lesson—"Fort Dearborn in Five Minutes"—honors
this bicentennial.



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BE8yxcj2xI&feature=plcp

 

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